Mowa zależna angielski, Reported speech, język angielski

MOWA ZALEŻNA JĘZYK ANGIELSKI ( Reported speech )

Każdy rodzaj zdań przedstawia się w mowie zależnej przy użyciu innych zasad:

ROZKAZY – używamy słów wprowadzających takich jak: „told, asked, ordered”
Konstrukcja: told / ordered / asked + to do something
W przytaczanej wypowiedzi nie stosujemy już wykrzyknika.

Go away! – He told me to go away
Don’t open the door! – He told me not to open the door.
Give me the book! – He told his son to give the book to him.

ZDANIA OZNAJMUJĄCE

REGUŁY:
a) używamy słów wprowadzających takich jak: said (powiedział), remarked (auważył), added (dodał), answered (odpowiedział), advised (poradził), warned (ostrzegł)
b) cofamy czas – wg tabeli następstwa czasó,
c) zmieniamy niektóre zaimki i określenia czasu:

now – then
this – that
these – those
here – there
today – that day
yesterday – the day before
tomorrow – the next day / the following day
next week – the following week
last week – the previous week
a...(yesr)...ago – a year before / the previous year
can – could
may – might
will – would
shall / ought to – should
must – had to

He said “She is very busy now.” – He said that she was very busy then.
He said “I will do it tomorrow” – He said that he would do it the next day.
He said “It’s cold in here” – He remarked that it was cold in there.
He said “I must write some letters now” – He said that he had to write some letters then.
They said “We are going for a country walk next week” – They said that they were going for a country walk the following week.

PYTANIA

REGUŁY:
a) używamy słów wprowadzających takich jak: asked (zapytał), wondered (zastanawiaą się), wanted to know (chciał wiedzieą);
b) cofamy czas o jeden do tyłu wg zasady następstwa czasów;
c) likwidujemy inwersję;
d) nie używamy znaku zapytania

„Do you like me?” – He asked if I liked him.
“Is the wondow opened?” – He wanted to know if the window was opened.
“Do you like my daughter’s new dress?” – He wondered if I liked his daughter’s new dress.
“What is the time?” – He asked what time it was.

SUGESTIE, PROPOZYCJE
Używamy słówek wprowadzających takich jak: suggested, offered

„ Would you like a cup of tea?” – He offered me a cup of tea.
“Would you like a lift?” – He offered me a lift.
“Shall we go to the park?” – Tom suggested going to the park.
“Shall we start the game once more?” – He suggested starting the game once more.

WYKRZYKNIENIA – używamy słów wprowadzających takich jak: exclaimed (wykrzyknął), remarked (zauważył), sighed (westchnął)

„What a nice house!” – He exclaimed what a nice house it was.
“What a good idea!” – He exclaimed what a good idea it was”
“How splendid!” – He exclaimed that it was splendid.

INNE WYRAŻENIA – RÓŻNEGO TYPU:

„Thank you” – He thanked me.
“I am very sorry” – He apologised to me.
“Hello” / “Good morning” – He greeted me.
“Good bye” – He farewelled me.
“Mary, this is Ms Brown” – He introduced Ms Brown to Mary.
“Good luck” – He wished me luck.
“Happy Christmas” – He wished me a happy Christmas.
“Congratulations!” – He congratulated me.

FRAGMENTY DIALOGUPYTANIA I ODPOWIEDZI

-Have you been to Paris?
-No.

She asked him if he had been to Paris and he answered that he hadn’t.

-Did you ring me up last night?
-Yes

Mary asked Tom if she had rung him up the previous night and he answered that he hadn’t.

Can you meet me tomorrow?
- No.

She asked me if I could meet her the following day and I answered that I couldn’t.

Często zabarwienie emocjonalne danego słowa może byą różnie oddane w mowie zależnej, np.

„Really?” – He was surprised to hear that.
“Oh no!” – He exclaimed with furry.
“Oh!” – He sighed with pain.
“Oh no!” – He exclaimed with anger / with impatience, etc.

OKRESY WARUNKOWE – W MOWIE ZALE??NEJ TYLKO PIERWSZY OKRES WARUNKOWY ZMIENIA SIÄ? – ZGODNIE Z REGUŁAMI NASTĘPSTWA CZASÓW. OKRES DRUGI I TRZECI POZOSTAJÄ? NIEZMIENIONE:

Pierwszy okres:
„If I catch the early bus I will arrive there on time” – She said that if she caught the early bus she would arrive there on time.
“If it rains we will get wet” – Yhey said that if it rained they would get wet.

Drugi okres:
“If I were a rich man I would be happier” – He said that if he was a rich man he would be much happier.
“If we went to Lonon we would find a job easily” – They said that if they went to London they would find a job easily.

Trzeci okres:
“If Susan had known Tom 10 years ago they would heve got married” – They said that if Susan had know Tom 10 years before they would have got married.
“If they hadn’t caught the plane they wouldn’ have died in the crush” – He said that if they hadn’t  caught the plane they wouldn’t have died in the crush.

NASTĘPSTWO CZASÓW – Jeśli zdanie nadrzędne zmienia się z czasu teraźniejszego na czas przeszły (np. „He says” – „He said”) wówczas następujące po nim zdanie także musi się zmienią wg następujących reguł:

Simple Present – Simple Past: I never eat meet. – I never ate meet.
Present Continuous – Past Continuous: I am driving – I was driving.
Present Perfect – Past Perfect: I have been to Paris – I had been to Paris.
Present Perfect Continuous – Past Perfect Continuous: He has been waiting.- He had been waiting.
Simple Past – Past Perfect: She wrote this letter – She had written that letter.
Future Tense – Conditional Tense: I will go – I would go.
Future Continuous – Conditional Continuous: I will be working – I would be working.
Conditional – Conditional: I would buy it – I would buy it.