Mowa zależna angielski, Reported speech, język angielski
- Kategoria: angielski
- Opublikowano: wtorek, 18, czerwiec 2013 09:33
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- Odsłony: 1691
MOWA ZALEŻNA JĘZYK ANGIELSKI ( Reported speech )
Każdy rodzaj zdań przedstawia się w mowie zależnej przy użyciu innych zasad:
ROZKAZY – używamy słów wprowadzających takich jak: „told, asked, ordered”
Konstrukcja: told / ordered / asked + to do something
W przytaczanej wypowiedzi nie stosujemy już wykrzyknika.
Go away! – He told me to go away
Don’t open the door! – He told me not to open the door.
Give me the book! – He told his son to give the book to him.
a) używamy słów wprowadzających takich jak: said (powiedział), remarked (auważył), added (dodał), answered (odpowiedział), advised (poradził), warned (ostrzegł)
b) cofamy czas – wg tabeli następstwa czasó,
c) zmieniamy niektóre zaimki i określenia czasu:
now – then
this – that
these – those
here – there
today – that day
yesterday – the day before
tomorrow – the next day / the following day
next week – the following week
last week – the previous week
a...(yesr)...ago – a year before / the previous year
can – could
may – might
will – would
shall / ought to – should
must – had to
He said “She is very busy now.” – He said that she was very busy then.
He said “I will do it tomorrow” – He said that he would do it the next day.
He said “It’s cold in here” – He remarked that it was cold in there.
He said “I must write some letters now” – He said that he had to write some letters then.
They said “We are going for a country walk next week” – They said that they were going for a country walk the following week.
a) używamy słów wprowadzających takich jak: asked (zapytał), wondered (zastanawiaą się), wanted to know (chciał wiedzieą);
b) cofamy czas o jeden do tyłu wg zasady następstwa czasów;
c) likwidujemy inwersję;
d) nie używamy znaku zapytania
„Do you like me?” – He asked if I liked him.
“Is the wondow opened?” – He wanted to know if the window was opened.
“Do you like my daughter’s new dress?” – He wondered if I liked his daughter’s new dress.
“What is the time?” – He asked what time it was.
Używamy słówek wprowadzających takich jak: suggested, offered
„ Would you like a cup of tea?” – He offered me a cup of tea.
“Would you like a lift?” – He offered me a lift.
“Shall we go to the park?” – Tom suggested going to the park.
“Shall we start the game once more?” – He suggested starting the game once more.
WYKRZYKNIENIA – używamy słów wprowadzających takich jak: exclaimed (wykrzyknął), remarked (zauważył), sighed (westchnął)
„What a nice house!” – He exclaimed what a nice house it was.
“What a good idea!” – He exclaimed what a good idea it was”
“How splendid!” – He exclaimed that it was splendid.
INNE WYRAŻENIA – RÓŻNEGO TYPU:
„Thank you” – He thanked me.
“I am very sorry” – He apologised to me.
“Hello” / “Good morning” – He greeted me.
“Good bye” – He farewelled me.
“Mary, this is Ms Brown” – He introduced Ms Brown to Mary.
“Good luck” – He wished me luck.
“Happy Christmas” – He wished me a happy Christmas.
“Congratulations!” – He congratulated me.
FRAGMENTY DIALOGU – PYTANIA I ODPOWIEDZI
-Have you been to Paris?
She asked him if he had been to Paris and he answered that he hadn’t.
-Did you ring me up last night?
Mary asked Tom if she had rung him up the previous night and he answered that he hadn’t.
Can you meet me tomorrow?
She asked me if I could meet her the following day and I answered that I couldn’t.
Często zabarwienie emocjonalne danego słowa może byą różnie oddane w mowie zależnej, np.
„Really?” – He was surprised to hear that.
“Oh no!” – He exclaimed with furry.
“Oh!” – He sighed with pain.
“Oh no!” – He exclaimed with anger / with impatience, etc.
OKRESY WARUNKOWE – W MOWIE ZALE??NEJ TYLKO PIERWSZY OKRES WARUNKOWY ZMIENIA SIÄ? – ZGODNIE Z REGUŁAMI NASTĘPSTWA CZASÓW. OKRES DRUGI I TRZECI POZOSTAJÄ? NIEZMIENIONE:
„If I catch the early bus I will arrive there on time” – She said that if she caught the early bus she would arrive there on time.
“If it rains we will get wet” – Yhey said that if it rained they would get wet.
“If I were a rich man I would be happier” – He said that if he was a rich man he would be much happier.
“If we went to Lonon we would find a job easily” – They said that if they went to London they would find a job easily.
“If Susan had known Tom 10 years ago they would heve got married” – They said that if Susan had know Tom 10 years before they would have got married.
“If they hadn’t caught the plane they wouldn’ have died in the crush” – He said that if they hadn’t caught the plane they wouldn’t have died in the crush.
NASTĘPSTWO CZASÓW – Jeśli zdanie nadrzędne zmienia się z czasu teraźniejszego na czas przeszły (np. „He says” – „He said”) wówczas następujące po nim zdanie także musi się zmienią wg następujących reguł:
Simple Present – Simple Past: I never eat meet. – I never ate meet.
Present Continuous – Past Continuous: I am driving – I was driving.
Present Perfect – Past Perfect: I have been to Paris – I had been to Paris.
Present Perfect Continuous – Past Perfect Continuous: He has been waiting.- He had been waiting.
Simple Past – Past Perfect: She wrote this letter – She had written that letter.
Future Tense – Conditional Tense: I will go – I would go.
Future Continuous – Conditional Continuous: I will be working – I would be working.
Conditional – Conditional: I would buy it – I would buy it.